4 years ago

The Short Isoform of BRD4 Promotes HIV-1 Latency by Engaging Repressive SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Complexes

The Short Isoform of BRD4 Promotes HIV-1 Latency by Engaging Repressive SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Complexes
BET proteins commonly activate cellular gene expression, yet inhibiting their recruitment paradoxically reactivates latent HIV-1 transcription. Here we identify the short isoform of BET family member BRD4 (BRD4S) as a corepressor of HIV-1 transcription. We found that BRD4S was enriched in chromatin fractions of latently infected T cells, and it was more rapidly displaced from chromatin upon BET inhibition than the long isoform. BET inhibition induced marked nucleosome remodeling at the latent HIV-1 promoter, which was dependent on the activity of BRG1-associated factors (BAF), an SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex with known repressive functions in HIV-1 transcription. BRD4S directly bound BRG1, a catalytic subunit of BAF, via its bromodomain and extraterminal (ET) domain, and this isoform was necessary for BRG1 recruitment to latent HIV-1 chromatin. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) combined with assay for transposase-accessible chromatin coupled to high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) data, we found that the latent HIV-1 promoter phenotypically resembles endogenous long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences, pointing to a select role of BRD4S-BRG1 complexes in genomic silencing of invasive retroelements.

Graphical abstract



BET protein inhibition can reverse HIV latency, yet the long isoform of BRD4 is a well-characterized transcriptional co-activator. Conrad et al. find that the short isoform of BRD4 cooperates with SWI/SNF nucleosome remodelers to repress HIV transcription during latency, a phenotype reversed by BET inhibitor treatment.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S109727651730549X

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