3 years ago

A neuropeptide, Substance-P, directly induces tissue-repairing M2 like macrophages by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway even in the presence of IFNγ

Ji Eun Lim, Youngsook Son, Eunkyung Chung
Macrophage polarization plays an important role in tissue damage and repair. In this study, we show that Substance-P (SP) can directly induce M2 polarization of inflammatory macrophages. SP induced the differentiation of GM-CSF-differentiated pro-inflammatory macrophages into alternatively activated phagocytic M2 like macrophages (M2SP) through direct activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6kinase pathway and induction of Arginase-1, CD163, and CD206, all of which were nullified by pretreatment with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonist RP67580 and specific signaling pathway inhibitors. M2SP were distinct from IL-4/IL-13-induced M2a and IL-10-induced M2c subtypes; they did not show STAT activation and exhibited high phagocytic and endothelial adhesive activity. Furthermore, SP had a dominant effect on M2 polarization over Interferon gamma (IFNγ), a potent M1-skewing cytokine, and effectively induced the M2 phenotype in monocytes and the human THP-1 cell line. Finally, adoptively transferred M2SP migrated to a spinal cord injury (SCI) lesion site and improved functional recovery. Collectively, our findings show that SP, a neuropeptide, plays a role as a novel cytokine by inducing tissue-repairing M2SP macrophages and thus may be developed for pharmacological intervention in diseases involving chronic inflammation and acute injury.

Publisher URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-09639-7

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-09639-7

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