3 years ago

A review on comparative mechanistic studies of antimicrobial peptides against archaea

A review on comparative mechanistic studies of antimicrobial peptides against archaea
Ron S. Ronimus, Vijayalekshmi Sarojini, Kyriakos G. Varnava
Archaea was until recently considered as a third domain of life in addition to bacteria and eukarya but recent studies support the existence of only two superphyla (bacteria and archaea). The fundamental differences between archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryal cells are probably the main reasons for the comparatively lower susceptibility of archaeal strains to current antimicrobial agents. The possible emerging pathogenicity of archaea and the role of archaeal methanogens in methane emissions, a potent greenhouse gas, has led many researchers to examine the sensitivity patterns of archaea and make attempts to find agents that have significant anti-archaeal activity. Even though antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are well known with several published reviews concerning their mode of action against bacteria and eukarya, to our knowledge, to date no reviews are available that focus on the action of these peptides against archaea. Herein, we present a review on all the peptides that have been tested against archaea. In addition, in an attempt to shed more light on possible future work that needs to be performed we have included a brief overview of the chemical characteristics, spectrum of activity, and the known mechanism of action of each of these peptides against bacteria and/or fungi. We also discuss the nature of and key physiological differences between Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya that are relevant to the development of anti-archaeal peptides. Despite our relatively limited knowledge about archaea, available data suggest that AMPs have an even broader spectrum of activity than currently recognized. The possible emerging pathogenicity of archaea and the role of archaeal methanogens in methane emissions, a potent greenhouse gas, has led the authors to present a review of the literature on the susceptibility of archaea to antimicrobial peptides focusing on the mechanism of action of each peptide while also discussing critical aspects that are relevant to the development of anti-archaeal peptides.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/bit.26387

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