5 years ago

BORC Regulates the Axonal Transport of Synaptic Vesicle Precursors by Activating ARL-8

BORC Regulates the Axonal Transport of Synaptic Vesicle Precursors by Activating ARL-8
Maxence V. Nachury, Gerald M. Liew, Wei Feng, Li Tao, Sharon Y. Lu, Shinsuke Niwa, Kang Shen


Axonal transport of synaptic vesicle precursors (SVPs) is essential for synapse development and function. The conserved ARF-like small GTPase ARL-8 is localized to SVPs and directly activates UNC-104/KIF1A, the axonal-transport kinesin for SVPs in C. elegans. It is not clear how ARL-8 is activated in this process. Here we show that part of the BLOC-1-related complex (BORC), previously shown to regulate lysosomal transport, is required to recruit and activate ARL-8 on SVPs. We found mutations in six BORC subunits—blos-1/BLOS1, blos-2/BLOS2, snpn-1/Snapin, sam-4/Myrlysin, blos-7/Lyspersin, and blos-9/MEF2BNB—cause defects in axonal transport of SVPs, leading to ectopic accumulation of synaptic vesicles in the proximal axon. This phenotype is suppressed by constitutively active arl-8 or unc-104 mutants. Furthermore, SAM-4/Myrlysin, a subunit of BORC, promotes the GDP-to-GTP exchange of ARL-8 in vitro and recruits ARL-8 onto SVPs in vivo. Thus, BORC regulates the axonal transport of synaptic materials and synapse formation by controlling the nucleotide state of ARL-8. Interestingly, the other two subunits of BORC essential for lysosomal transport, kxd-1/KXD1 and blos-8/Diaskedin, are not required for the SVP transport, suggesting distinct subunit requirements for lysosomal and SVP trafficking.

Publisher URL: http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(17)30871-0

DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.07.013

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