3 years ago

Identification of a new B4GalNAcT1 (GM2/GD2/GA2 synthase) isoform, and regulation of enzyme stability and intracellular transport by arginine-based motif

Identification of a new B4GalNAcT1 (GM2/GD2/GA2 synthase) isoform, and regulation of enzyme stability and intracellular transport by arginine-based motif
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are abundant in plasma membranes of mammalian cells, and their synthesis is strictly regulated in the Golgi apparatus. Disruption of GSL homeostasis is the cause of numerous diseases. Hundreds of molecular species of GSLs exist, and the detailed mechanisms underlying their homeostasis remain unclear. We investigated the physiological significance of isoform production for β1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 1/B4GALNT1 (B4GN1), an enzyme involved in synthesis of ganglio-series GSLs GM2/GD2/GA2. We discovered a new mRNA variant (termed variant 2) of B4GN1 through EST clone search. A new isoform, M1-B4GN1, which has an NH2-terminal cytoplasmic tail longer than that of previously-known isoform M2-B4GN1, is translated from variant 2. M1-B4GN1 has R-based motif (a retrograde transport signal) in the cytoplasmic tail. M1-B4GN1 is partially localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) depending on the R-based motif, whereas M2-B4GN1 is localized in the Golgi. Stability of M1-B4GN1 is higher than that of M2-B4GN1 because of the R-based motif. M2-B4GN1 forms a homodimer via disulfide bonding. When M1-B4GN1 and M2-B4GN1 were co-expressed in CHO-K1 cells, the two isoforms formed a heterodimer. The M1/M2-B4GN1 heterodimer was more stable than the M2-B4GN1 homodimer, but the heterodimer was not transported from the Golgi to the ER. Our findings indicate that stabilization of M1-B4GN1 homodimer and M1/M2-B4GN1 heterodimer by R-based motif is related to prolongation of Golgi retention, but not to retrograde transport from the Golgi to the ER. Coexistence of several B4GN1 isoforms having distinctive characteristics presumably helps maintain overall enzyme stability and GSL homeostasis.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0005273617302316

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