4 years ago

Deep transcriptome annotation suggests that small and large proteins encoded in the same genes often cooperate

Lucier, Scott, V., C. R., S., M. S., A. V., Beaudoin, A., M. C., X., Ouangraoua, Hunting, Gagnon, Vanderperre, B., Fournier, Roy, J.-F., Breton, M., Delcourt, Landry, D. J., Roucou, J., Motard, Gagnon-Arsenault, Brunelle, Cohen, A. A., I., Samandi, M.-A., Jacques, J.-F.
Recent studies in eukaryotes have demonstrated the translation of alternative open reading frames (altORFs) in addition to annotated protein coding sequences (CDSs). We show that a large number of small proteins could in fact be coded by altORFs. The putative alternative proteins translated from altORFs have orthologs in many species and evolutionary patterns indicate that altORFs are particularly constrained in CDSs that evolve slowly. Thousands of predicted alternative proteins are detected in proteomic datasets by reanalysis with a database containing predicted alternative proteins. Protein domains and co-conservation analyses suggest potential functional cooperation or shared function between small and large proteins encoded in the same genes. This is illustrated with specific examples, including altMID51, a 70 amino acid mitochondrial fission-promoting protein encoded in MiD51/Mief1/SMCR7L, a gene encoding an annotated protein promoting mitochondrial fission. Our results suggest that many coding genes code for more than one protein that are often functionally related.

Publisher URL: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/142992v1

DOI: 10.1101/142992

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