5 years ago

Developmental neurogenesis in mouse and Xenopus is impaired in the absence of Nosip

Genetic deletion of Nosip in mice causes holoprosencephaly, however, the function of Nosip in neurogenesis is currently unknown. Results We combined two vertebrate model organisms, the mouse and the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, to study the function of Nosip in neurogenesis. We found, that size and cortical thickness of the developing brain of Nosip knockout mice were reduced. Accordingly, the formation of postmitotic neurons was greatly diminished, concomitant with a reduced number of apical and basal neural progenitor cells in vivo. Neurospheres derived from Nosip knockout embryos exhibited reduced growth and the differentiation capability into neurons in vitro was almost completely abolished. Mass spectrometry analysis of the neurospheres proteome revealed a reduced expression of Rbp1, a regulator of retinoic acid synthesis, when Nosip was absent. We identified the homologous nosip gene to be expressed in differentiated neurons in the developing brain of Xenopus embryos. Knockdown of Nosip in Xenopus resulted in a reduction of brain size that could be rescued by reintroducing human NOSIP mRNA. Furthermore, the expression of pro-neurogenic transcription factors was reduced and the differentiation of neuronal cells was impaired upon Nosip knockdown. In Xenopus as well as in mouse we identified reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis as underlying cause of microcephaly upon Nosip depletion. In Xenopus Nosip and Rbp1 are similarly expressed and knockdown of Nosip resulted in down regulation of Rbp1. Knockdown of Rbp1 caused a similar microcephaly phenotype as the depletion of Nosip and synergy experiments indicated that both proteins act in the same signalling pathway. Conclusions Nosip is a novel factor critical for neural stem cell/progenitor self-renewal and neurogenesis during mouse and Xenopus development and functions upstream of Rbp1 during early neurogenesis.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0012160617300714

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