4 years ago

Arginyltransferase ATE1 is targeted to the neuronal growth cones and regulates neurite outgrowth during brain development

Arginylation is an emerging protein modification mediated by arginyltransferase ATE1, shown to regulate embryogenesis and actin cytoskeleton, however its functions in different physiological systems are not well understood. Here we analyzed the role of ATE1 in brain development and neuronal growth by producing a conditional mouse knockout with Ate1 deletion in the nervous system driven by Nestin promoter (Nes-Ate1 mice). These mice were weaker than wild type, resulting in low postnatal survival rates, and had abnormalities in the brain that suggested defects in neuronal migration. Cultured Ate1 knockout neurons showed a reduction in the neurite outgrowth and the levels of doublecortin and F-actin in the growth cones. In wild type, ATE1 prominently localized to the growth cones, in addition to the cell bodies. Examination of the Ate1 mRNA sequence reveals the existence of putative zipcode-binding sequences involved in mRNA targeting to the cell periphery and local translation at the growth cones. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that Ate1 mRNA localized to the tips of the growth cones, likely due to zipcode-mediated targeting, and this localization coincided with spots of localization of arginylated β-actin, which disappeared in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. We propose that zipcode-mediated co-targeting of Ate1 and β-actin mRNA leads to localized co-translational arginylation of β-actin that drives the growth cone migration and neurite outgrowth.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0012160617304001

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