5 years ago

ER stress and distinct outputs of the IRE1{alpha} RNase control proliferation and senescence in response to oncogenic Ras [Cell Biology]

ER stress and distinct outputs of the IRE1{alpha} RNase control proliferation and senescence in response to oncogenic Ras [Cell Biology]
Kyle J. Breech, Jeongin Son, Alayna B. Craig-Lucas, Christian L. John, Nicholas Blazanin, Adam B. Glick, Michael A. Podolsky

Oncogenic Ras causes proliferation followed by premature senescence in primary cells, an initial barrier to tumor development. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in regulating these two cellular outcomes is poorly understood. During ER stress, the inositol requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) endoribonuclease (RNase), a key mediator of the UPR, cleaves Xbp1 mRNA to generate a potent transcription factor adaptive toward ER stress. However, IRE1α also promotes cleavage and degradation of ER-localized mRNAs essential for cell death. Here, we show that oncogenic HRas induces ER stress and activation of IRE1α. Reduction of ER stress or Xbp1 splicing using pharmacological, genetic, and RNAi approaches demonstrates that this adaptive response is critical for HRas-induced proliferation. Paradoxically, reduced ER stress or Xbp1 splicing promotes growth arrest and premature senescence through hyperactivation of the IRE1α RNase. Microarray analysis of IRE1α- and XBP1-depleted cells, validation using RNA cleavage assays, and 5′ RACE identified the prooncogenic basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor ID1 as an IRE1α RNase target. Further, we demonstrate that Id1 degradation by IRE1α is essential for HRas-induced premature senescence. Together, our studies point to IRE1α as an important node for posttranscriptional regulation of the early Ras phenotype that is dependent on both oncogenic signaling as well as stress signals imparted by the tumor microenvironment and could be an important mechanism driving escape from Ras-induced senescence.

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.