3 years ago

Folding of the Cerebral Cortex Requires Cdk5 in Upper-Layer Neurons in Gyrencephalic Mammals

Folding of the Cerebral Cortex Requires Cdk5 in Upper-Layer Neurons in Gyrencephalic Mammals
Hiroshi Kawasaki, Atsushi Tajima, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Toshihide Horiike, Muneo Kawasumi, Yohei Shinmyo, Tung Anh Dinh Duong, Yukari Terashita

Summary

Folds in the cerebral cortex in mammals are believed to be key structures for accommodating increased cortical neurons in the cranial cavity. However, the mechanisms underlying cortical folding remain largely unknown, mainly because genetic manipulations for the gyrencephalic brain have been unavailable. By combining in utero electroporation and the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we succeeded in efficient gene knockout of Cdk5, which is mutated in some patients with classical lissencephaly, in the gyrencephalic brains of ferrets. We show that Cdk5 knockout in the ferret cerebral cortex markedly impaired cortical folding. Furthermore, the results obtained from the introduction of dominant-negative Cdk5 into specific cortical layers suggest that Cdk5 function in upper-layer neurons is more important for cortical folding than that in lower-layer neurons. Cdk5 inhibition induced severe migration defects in cortical neurons. Taken together, our findings suggest that the appropriate positioning of upper-layer neurons is critical for cortical folding.

Publisher URL: http://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(17)31131-2

DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.08.024

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