3 years ago

Antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes in Salmonella strains isolated from broiler chickens along the slaughtering process in China

A total of 189 Salmonella isolates were recovered from 627 samples which were collected from cecal contents of broilers, chicken carcasses, chicken meat after cutting step and frozen broiler chicken products along the slaughtering process at a slaughterhouse in Sichuan province of China. The Salmonella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 10 categories of antimicrobial agents using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method. Those antibiotics-resistant isolates were further investigated for the occurrence of resistance genes, the presence of class 1 integron as well as the associated gene cassettes, and the mutations within the gyrA and parC genes. Consequently, the prevalence of Salmonella was 30.14% (47.96% for cecal content, 18.78% for chicken carcasses, 31.33% for cutting meat and 14.00% for frozen meat, respectively). The predominant serotypes were S. Typhimurium (15.34%) and S. Enteritidis (69.84%). High resistance rates to the following drugs were observed: nalidixic acid (99.5%), ampicillin (87.8%), tetracycline (51.9%), ciprofloxacin (48.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (48.1%), and spectinomycin (34.4%). Antimicrobial resistance profiling showed that 60.8% of isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and MDR strains increased from 44.7% to 78.6% along the slaughtering line. 94.6% (n =157) of beta-lactam-resistant isolates harbored at least one resistance gene of bla TEM or bla CTX-M. The relatively low prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance genes (aac(3)-II, aac(3)-IV, and ant(2″)-I) was found in 49 (66.2%) of antibiotic-resistant isolates. The tetracycline resistance genes (tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), and tet(G) and sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2, and sul3) were identified in 84 (85.7%) and 89 (97.8%) antibiotic-resistant isolates respectively. floR was identified in 44 (97.8%) florfenicol-resistant isolates. Class 1 integron was detected in 37.4% (n =43) of the MDR isolates. Two different gene cassettes, bla OXA-30-aadA1 (19 isolates) and bla OXA-30 -aadA1/drfA1-orfC (2 isolates), were identified in class 1 integron-positive isolates. 97.9% (184/188) of quinolone-resistant isolates had at least one mutation within gyrA or parC. Overall, antimicrobial resistance showed an increasing trend along the slaughtering process. The results showed that broiler chicken products in the slaughterhouse were contaminated with MDR Salmonella, which might originate from food producing animals to some extent, and cross-contamination during slaughter, and facilitate the dissemination of the resistance genes to consumers along the production chain, which suggests importance of controlling Salmonella during slaughter for public health, underlying strict hygiene method and HACCP management to reduce cross-contamination.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0168160517303343

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