5 years ago

Nutritional iron turned inside out: intestinal stress from a gut microbial perspective

Nutritional iron turned inside out: intestinal stress from a gut microbial perspective
Harold Tjalsma, Dorine W. Swinkels, Manuela Raffatellu, Guus A.M. Kortman
Iron is abundantly present on earth, essential for most microorganisms and crucial for human health. Human iron deficiency that is nevertheless highly prevalent in developing regions of the world can be effectively treated by oral iron administration. Accumulating evidence indicates that excess of unabsorbed iron that enters the colonic lumen causes unwanted side effects at the intestinal host–microbiota interface. The chemical properties of iron, the luminal environment and host iron withdrawal mechanisms, especially during inflammation, can turn the intestine in a rather stressful milieu. Certain pathogenic enteric bacteria can, however, deal with this stress at the expense of other members of the gut microbiota, while their virulence also seems to be stimulated in an iron-rich intestinal environment. This review covers the multifaceted aspects of nutritional iron stress with respect to growth, composition, metabolism and pathogenicity of the gut microbiota in relation to human health. We aim to present an unpreceded view on the dynamic effects and impact of oral iron administration on intestinal host–microbiota interactions to provide leads for future research and other applications. Oral iron administration, host iron status and intestinal inflammation can have a large impact on the gut microbiota composition, metabolism and virulence. This review comprehensively highlights the multifaceted aspects of nutritional iron stress within the colon lumen.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/1574-6976.12086

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