3 years ago

Enhanced Efficiency of 13C Dynamic Nuclear Polarization by Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Doping

Enhanced Efficiency of 13C Dynamic Nuclear Polarization by Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Doping
Lloyd Lumata, Likai Song, Zahra Hayati, Qing Wang, Christopher R. Parish, Zackary I. Cleveland, Peter Niedbalski
The attainment of high NMR signal enhancements is crucial to the success of in vitro or in vivo hyperpolarized NMR or imaging (MRI) experiments. In this work, we report on the use of a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) MRI contrast agent Feraheme (ferumoxytol) as a beneficial additive in 13C samples for dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Our DNP data at 3.35 T and 1.2 K reveal that the addition of 11 mM elemental iron concentration of Feraheme in trityl OX063-doped 3 M [1-13C] acetate samples resulted in a substantial improvement of 13C DNP signal by a factor of almost three-fold. Concomitant with the large DNP signal increase is the narrowing of the 13C microwave DNP spectra for samples doped with SPION. W-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy data suggest that these two prominent effects of SPION doping on 13C DNP can be ascribed to the shortening of trityl OX063 electron T1, as explained within the thermal mixing DNP model. Liquid-state 13C NMR signal enhancements as high as 20,000-fold for SPION-doped samples were recorded after dissolution at 9.4 T and 297 K, which is about three times the liquid-state NMR signal enhancement of the control sample. While the presence of SPION in hyperpolarized solution drastically reduces 13C T1, this can be mitigated by polarizing smaller aliquots of DNP samples. Moreover, we have shown that Feraheme nanoparticles (∼30 nm in size) can be easily and effectively removed from the hyperpolarized liquid by simple mechanical filtration, and thus one can potentially incorporate an in-line filtration for these SPIONS along the dissolution pathway of the hyperpolarizer, a significant advantage over other DNP enhancers such as the lanthanide complexes. The overall results suggest that the commercially available and FDA-approved Feraheme is a highly efficient DNP enhancer that could be readily translated for use in clinical applications of dissolution DNP.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b06408

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b06408

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