3 years ago

Crotonases: Nature’s Exceedingly Convertible Catalysts

Crotonases: Nature’s Exceedingly Convertible Catalysts
Christopher T. Lohans, Christopher J. Schofield, David Y. Wang, Refaat B. Hamed, Jimmy Wang
The crotonases comprise a widely distributed enzyme superfamily that has multiple roles in both primary and secondary metabolism. Many crotonases employ oxyanion hole-mediated stabilization of intermediates to catalyze the reaction of coenzyme A (CoA) thioester substrates (e.g., malonyl-CoA, α,β-unsaturated CoA esters) both with nucleophiles and, in the case of enolate intermediates, with varied electrophiles. Reactions of crotonases that proceed via a stabilized oxyanion intermediate include the hydrolysis of substrates including proteins, as well as hydration, isomerization, nucleophilic aromatic substitution, Claisen-type, and cofactor-independent oxidation reactions. The crotonases have a conserved fold formed from a central β-sheet core surrounded by α-helices, which typically oligomerizes to form a trimer or dimer of trimers. The presence of a common structural platform and mechanisms involving intermediates with diverse reactivity implies that crotonases have considerable potential for biocatalysis and synthetic biology, as supported by pioneering protein engineering studies on them. In this Perspective, we give an overview of crotonase diversity and structural biology and then illustrate the scope of crotonase catalysis and potential for biocatalysis.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.7b01699

DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.7b01699

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