3 years ago

Protein Phosphorylation and Its Role in the Regulation of Annexin A2 Function

Protein Phosphorylation and Its Role in the Regulation of Annexin A2 Function
Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a multifunctional protein involved in endocytosis, exocytosis, membrane domain organisation, actin remodelling, signal transduction, protein assembly, transcription and mRNA transport, as well as DNA replication and repair. Scope of Review The current knowledge of the role of phosphorylation in the functional regulation of AnxA2 is reviewed. To provide a more comprehensive treatment of this topic, we also address in depth the phosphorylation process in general and discuss its possible conformational effects. Furthermore, we discuss the apparent limitations of the methods used to investigate phosphoproteins, as exemplified by the study of AnxA2. Major Conclusions AnxA2 is subjected to complex regulation by post-translational modifications affecting its cellular functions, with Ser11, Ser25 and Tyr23 representing important phosphorylation sites. Thus, Ser phosphorylation of AnxA2 is involved in the recruitment and docking of secretory granules, the regulation of its association with S100A10, and sequestration of perinuclear, translationally inactive mRNP complexes. By contrast, Tyr phosphorylation of AnxA2 regulates its role in actin dynamics and increases its association with endosomal compartments. Modification of its three main phosphorylation sites is not sufficient to discriminate between its numerous functions. Thus, fine-tuning of AnxA2 function is mediated by the joint action of several post-translational modifications. General Significance AnxA2 participates in malignant cell transformation, and its overexpression and/or phosphorylation is associated with cancer progression and metastasis. Thus, tight regulation of AnxA2 function is an integral aspect of cellular homeostasis. The presence of AnxA2 in cancer cell-derived exosomes, as well as the potential regulation of exosomal AnxA2 by phosphorylation or other PTMs, are topics of great interest.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0304416517302830

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