5 years ago

Biomimetically grown apatite spheres from aggregated bioglass nanoparticles with ultrahigh porosity and surface area imply potential drug delivery and cell engineering applications

Biomimetically grown apatite spheres from aggregated bioglass nanoparticles with ultrahigh porosity and surface area imply potential drug delivery and cell engineering applications
Here we communicate the generation of biomimetically grown apatite spheres from aggregated bioglass nanoparticles and the potential properties applicable for drug delivery and cell/tissue engineering. Ion releasing nanoparticulates of bioglass (85%SiO2-15%CaO) in a mineralizing medium show an intriguing dynamic phenomenon – aggregation, mineralization to apatite, integration and growth into micron-sized (1.5–3μm) spheres. During the progressive ionic dissolution/precipitation reactions, nano-to-micro-morphology, glass-to-crystal composition, and the physico-chemical properties (porosity, surface area, and charge) change dynamically. With increasing reaction period, the apatite becomes more crystallized with increased crystallinity and crystal size, and gets a composition closer to the stoichiometry. The developed microspheres exhibit hierarchical surface nanostructure, negative charge (ς-potential of −20mV), and ultrahigh mesoporosity (mesopore size of 6.1nm, and the resultant surface area of 63.7m2/g and pore volume of 0.153cm3/g) at 14days of mineralization, which are even higher than those of its precursor bioglass nanoparticles. Thanks to these properties, the biomimetic mineral microspheres take up biological molecules effectively, i.e., loading capacity of positive-charged protein is over 10%. Of note, the release is highly sustainable at a constant rate, i.e., profiling almost ‘zero-order’ kinetics for 4weeks, suggesting the potential usefulness as protein delivery systems. The biomimetic mineral microspheres hold some remnant Si in the core region, and release calcium, phosphate, and silicate ions over the test period, implying the long-term ionic-related therapeutic functions. The mesenchymal stem cells favour the biomimetic spheres with an excellent viability. Due to the merit of sizes (a few micrometers), the spheres can be intercalated into cells, mediating cellular interactions in 3D cell-spheroid engineering, and also can stimulate osteogenic differentiation of cells when incorporated into cell-laden gels. The intriguing properties observed in this study, including biomimetic composition, high mesoporosity, release of therapeutic ions, effective loading and long-term release of proteins, and diverse yet favorable 3D cellular interactions, suggest great potential of the newly developed biomimetic microspheres in biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and cell/tissue engineering. Statement of Significance This work reports the generation of apatite spheres with a few micrometers in size biomimetically grown from bioactive glass nanoparticles, through a series of intriguing yet unprecedented phenomenon involving aggregation of nanoparticles, mineralization and sphere growth. The mineral microspheres possess some unique physico-chemical properties including mesoporosity, ultrahigh surface area, and therapeutic ionic release. Furthermore, the spheres show excellent loading and delivery capacity of protein molecules, and mediate favorable cellular interactions in 2D and 3D culture conditions, demonstrating a future multifunctional microcarrier platform for the therapeutics delivery and cell/tissue engineering.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S1742706117304737

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