3 years ago

A nanoporous titanium surface promotes the maturation of focal adhesions and formation of filopodia with distinctive nanoscale protrusions by osteogenic cells

A nanoporous titanium surface promotes the maturation of focal adhesions and formation of filopodia with distinctive nanoscale protrusions by osteogenic cells
While topography is a key determinant of the cellular response to biomaterials, the mechanisms implicated in the cell-surface interactions are complex and still not fully elucidated. In this context, we have examined the effect of nanoscale topography on the formation of filopodia, focal adhesions, and gene expression of proteins associated with cell adhesion and sensing. Commercially pure titanium discs were treated by oxidative nanopatterning with a solution of H2SO4/H2O2 50:50 (v/v). Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy characterizations showed that this facile chemical treatment efficiently creates a unique nanoporous surface with a root-mean-square roughness of 11.5nm and pore diameter of 20±5nm. Osteogenic cells were cultured on polished (control) and nanotextured discs for periods of 6, 24, and 72h. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed increases in the adhesion formation per cell area, focal adhesion length, and maturity on the nanoporous surface. Gene expression for various focal adhesion markers, including paxillin and talin, and different integrins (e.g. α1, β1, and α5) was also significantly increased. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of more filopodia on cells grown on the nanoporous surface. These cell extensions displayed abundant and distinctive nanoscale lateral protrusions of 10–15nm diameter that molded the nanopore walls. Together the increase in the focal adhesions and abundance of filopodia and associated protrusions could contribute to strengthening the adhesive interaction of cells with the surface, and thereby, alter the nanoscale biomechanical relationships that trigger cellular cascades that regulate cell behavior. Statement of Significance Oxidative patterning was exploited to create a unique three-dimensional network of nanopores on titanium surfaces. Our study illustrates how a facile chemical treatment can be advantageously used to modulate cellular behavior. The nanoscale lateral protrusions on filopodia elicited by this surface are novel adhesive structures. Altogether, the increases in focal adhesion, length, maturity, and filopodia with distinctive lateral protrusions could substantially increase the contact area and adhesion strength of cells, thereby promoting the activation of cellular signaling cascades that may explain the positive osteogenic outcomes previously achieved with this surface. Such physicochemical cueing offers a simple attractive alternative to the use of bioactive agents for guiding tissue repair/regeneration around implantable metals.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S1742706117304592

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