3 years ago

Characteristics and Long-Term Prognosis of Patients ≤35 Years of Age with ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and “Normal or Near Normal” Coronary Arteries

There are scarce data regarding risk factors and prognosis of patients with premature ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and “normal or near normal” coronary arteries (N/NNCAs). We compared the characteristics and long-term prognosis of patients with premature STEMI and N/NNCAs with their counterparts with significant coronary artery disease (CAD). We recruited 330 patients who had STEMI ≤35 years of age and 167 age- and gender-matched controls. All patients underwent coronary angiography. Coronary arteries with no lesions or lesions causing <30% reduction in lumen diameter were defined as N/NNCAs, whereas narrowings causing ≥50% diameter reduction formed the significant CAD group. Lipid profile, homocysteine levels, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism were determined. Sixty patients (18%) had N/NNCAs. Patients with N/NNCAs had lower low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and higher high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, higher homocysteine levels, and higher prevalence of MTHFR TT genotype (34.6 vs 18%, p = 0.008) compared with patients with significant CAD. After a median follow-up of 8 years, cardiovascular events occurred in 105 (36%) of 291 patients with available follow-up data. Significant CAD was associated with higher risk for recurrent cardiovascular events after adjustment for traditional risk factors (hazard ratio 2.095, 95% confidence interval 1.088 to 3.664, p = 0.022) and additional adjustment for the left ventricular ejection fraction, reperfusion therapy, and persistent smoking (hazard ratio 1.869, 95% confidence interval 1.007 to 3.468, p = 0.041). In conclusion, patients with premature STEMI and N/NNCAs have fewer lipid abnormalities, higher homocysteine levels and prevalence of MTHFR TT genotype, and better long-term prognosis compared with their counterparts with significant CAD.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0002914917309426

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