4 years ago

Anticoagulation Control in Warfarin-Treated Patients Undergoing Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation (from the Edoxaban Versus Enoxaparin–Warfarin in Patients Undergoing Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation Trial)

In the Edoxaban Versus Enoxaparin–Warfarin in Patients Undergoing Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation (ENSURE-AF) study (NCT 02072434), edoxaban was compared with enoxaparin–warfarin in 2,199 patients undergoing electrical cardioversion of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). In this multicenter prospective randomized open blinded end-point trial, we analyzed patients randomized to enoxaparin–warfarin. We determined time to achieve therapeutic range (TtTR); time in therapeutic range (TiTR); their clinical determinants; relation to sex, age, medical history, treatment, tobacco use, race risk (SAMe-TT2R2) score; and impact on primary end points (composite of stroke, systemic embolic event[SEE], myocardial infarction [MI], and cardiovascular death [CVD] and composite of major + clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding). Among 1,104 patients randomized to enoxaparin–warfarin, 27% were naïve to oral anticoagulants. Mean age was 64.2 ± 11 years and mean congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 (doubled), diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (doubled), vascular disease, age 65–74, female (CHA2DS2-VASc) score was 2.6. Mean TtTR was 7.7 days (median 7 days) and mean TiTR after reaching an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0 was 71%. In 695 patients who had an INR <2.0 before the first dose and who reached an INR ≥2.0, 436 had a SAMe-TT2R2 score ≤2 and 259 had a score >2. On multivariate regression, an independent predictor of extended TtTR was creatinine clearance (p = 0.02). TtTR was marginally related to stroke/SEE/MI/CVD (p = 0.06; odds ratio  0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.02 to 1.17) but not to any bleeding. Independent predictors of TiTR were previous vitamin K antagonist experience (p<0.01) and low hypertension, abnormal renal or liver function, stroke, bleeding, labile INRs, age >65, concomitant drugs or alcohol (HAS-BLED) score (p = 0.02). TiTR was related to any bleeding (p = 0.02; odds ratio  0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.88), but not stroke/SEE/MI/CVD. In this cohort of warfarin users with a high TiTR no difference was seen between TtTR and TiTR in relation to SAMe-TT2R2 score. In conclusion, even in this short-term study, TiTR was significantly related to bleeding events.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0002914917309578

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