4 years ago

Decline in risk of recurrent cardiovascular events in the period 1996 to 2014 partly explained by better treatment of risk factors and less subclinical atherosclerosis

To quantify the decline in recurrent major cardiovascular events (MCVE) risk in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease between 1996 and 2014 and to assess whether the improvements in recurrent MCVE-risk can be explained by reduced prevalence of risk factors, more medication use and less subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods and results The study was conducted in the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART) cohort in patients entering the cohort in the period 1996–2014. The prevalence of risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis was measured at baseline. Incidence rates per 100person-years for recurrent MCVE (including stroke, myocardial infarction, retinal bleeding, retinal infarction, terminal heart failure, sudden death, fatal rupture of abdominal aneurysm) were calculated, stratified by the year of study enrolment. For the attributable risk of changes in risk factors, risk factor treatment, and subclinical atherosclerosis on the incidence rates of recurrent MCVE, adjusted rate ratios were estimated with Poisson regression. 7216 patients had a median follow-up of 6.5years (IQR 3.4–9.9). The crude incidence of recurrent MCVE declined by 53% between 1996 and 2014 (from 3.68 to 1.73 events per 100person-years) and by 75% adjusted for age and sex. This improvement in vascular prognosis was 36% explained by changes in risk factors, medication use and subclinical atherosclerosis. Conclusion The risk of recurrent MCVE in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease has strongly declined in the period between 1996 and 2014. This is only partly attributable to lower prevalence of risk factors, improved medication use and less subclinical atherosclerosis.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0167527317321204

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