5 years ago

Regulatory considerations in development of vaccines to prevent disease caused by Chikungunya virus

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus. Chikungunya disease (CHIK) in humans is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, cutaneous rash, myalgia and debilitating polyarthralgia. Until recently the virus was considered endemic to only Africa and Asia, but since 2004 CHIK has spread to previously non-endemic regions, including Europe and the Americas, thereby emerging as a global health threat. Although a variety of CHIKV vaccine candidates have been tested in animals, and a few have advanced to human clinical trials, no licensed vaccine is currently available for prevention of disease. In this article, we review recent efforts in CHIKV vaccine development and discuss regulatory considerations for CHIKV vaccine licensure under U.S. FDA regulations. Several licensure pathways are available, and the most appropriate licensure pathway for a CHIK vaccine will depend on the type of evidence that can be generated to demonstrate the vaccine’s effectiveness. If “traditional approval” following demonstration of direct benefit in adequate and well-controlled clinical disease endpoint studies is not possible, the Accelerated Approval and Animal Rule pathways are potential alternatives. In terms of vaccine safety, the potential for vaccine associated arthralgia and antibody-dependent enhancement of infectivity and disease severity are important issues that should be addressed in both pre-clinical and clinical studies. CHIK vaccine developers are encouraged to communicate with the FDA during all stages of vaccine development.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0264410X17309738

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