3 years ago

Thyroid hormone treatment activates protective pathways in both in vivo and in vitro models of neuronal injury

Thyroid hormone plays an important role in brain development and adult brain function, and may influence neuronal recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). We utilized both animal and cell culture models to determine the effects of thyroid hormone treatment, post TBI or during hypoxia, on genes important for neuronal survival and neurogenesis. We show that TBI in rats is associated with a reduction in serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). A single dose of levothyroxine (T4), one hour after injury, increased serum T4 and normalized serum T3 levels. Expression of genes important for thyroid hormone action in the brain, MCT8 and Type 2 deiodinase (Dio2) mRNA, diminished after injury, but were partially restored with T4 treatment. mRNA from the Type 3 deiodinase (Dio3) gene, which inactivates T4 to reverse T3 (rT3), was induced 2.7 fold by TBI, and further stimulated 6.7-fold by T4 treatment. T4 treatment significantly increased the expression of mRNA from Bcl2, VEGFA, Sox2 and neurotrophin, genes important for neuronal survival and recovery. The cortex, compared to the hippocampus and cerebellum, sustained the greatest injury and had the most significant change in gene expression as a result of injury and the greatest response to T4 treatment. We utilized hypoxia to study the effect of neuronal injury in vitro. Neuroblastoma cells were exposed to reduced oxygen tension, 0.2%, and were compared to cells grown at control oxygen levels of 21%. T3 treatment significantly increased hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α protein, but not HIF-1α. In a hypoxia time course exposure, expression of hypoxia-mediated genes (VEGF, Enolase, HIF2α, c-Jun) peaked at least 8 h earlier with T3-treatment, compared to cells grown without T3. The early induction of these genes may promote cellular growth after injury. After hypoxic injury, T3 induced mRNA expression of the genes, KLF9 and hairless, important for T3-mediated brain function. The findings from both in vitro and in vivo studies support a role of thyroid hormone in activating pathways important for neuronal protection and promotion of neuronal recovery after injury.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0303720717302927

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