5 years ago

Randomized trial of cesarean vs vaginal delivery for effects on the pelvic floor in squirrel monkeys

Vaginal delivery is a risk factor in pelvic floor disorders. We previously described changes in the pelvic floor associated with pregnancy and parturition in the squirrel monkey, a species with a humanlike pattern of spontaneous age- and parity-associated pelvic organ prolapse. Objective The potential to prevent or diminish these changes with scheduled cesarean delivery (CD) has not been evaluated. In a randomized, controlled trial, we compared female squirrel monkeys undergoing spontaneous vaginal delivery with those undergoing scheduled primary CD for pelvic floor muscle volumes, muscle contrast changes, and dynamic effects on bladder neck position. Study Design Levator ani, obturator internus, and coccygeus (COC) muscle volumes and contrast uptake were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in 20 nulliparous females examined prior to pregnancy, a few days after delivery, and 3 months postpartum. The position of bladder neck relative to bony reference line also was assessed with abdominal pressure using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Results Baseline measurements of 10 females randomly assigned to scheduled primary CD were not different from those of 10 females assigned to spontaneous vaginal delivery. Levator ani and obturator internus muscle volumes did not differ between groups, while volumes were reduced (P < .05) in the observation immediately after pregnancy. The COC muscles increased (P < .05) immediately after delivery for females in the spontaneous vaginal delivery group, but not for females in the scheduled CD group. Position of the bladder neck descended (P < .05) by 3 months postpartum in both groups. Conclusion Scheduled CD diminishes changes in COC muscle volume and contrast reported to be associated with spontaneous vaginal delivery in squirrel monkeys. However, pelvic support of the bladder was not protected by this intervention suggesting that effects of pregnancy and delivery are not uniformly prevented by this procedure.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0002937815010273

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