3 years ago

Peptostreptococcus anaerobius Induces Intracellular Cholesterol Biosynthesis in Colon Cells to Induce Proliferation and Causes Dysplasia in Mice

Stool samples from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have a higher abundance of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius than stool from individuals without CRC, based on metagenome sequencing. We investigated whether P anaerobius contributes to colon tumor formation in mice and its possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Methods We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses to measure P anaerobius in 112 stool samples and 255 colon biopsies from patients with CRC or advanced adenoma and from healthy individuals (controls) undergoing colonoscopy examination at hospitals in Hong Kong and Beijing. C57BL/6 mice were given broad-spectrum antibiotics, followed by a single dose of azoxymethane, to induce colon tumor formation. Three days later, mice were given P anaerobius or Esherichia coli MG1655 (control bacteria), via gavage, for 6 weeks. Some mice were also given the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Intestine tissues were collected and analyzed histologically. The colon epithelial cell line NCM460 and colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 were exposed to P anaerobius or control bacteria; cells were analyzed by immunoblot, proliferation, and bacterial attachment analyses and compared in gene expression profiling studies. Gene expression was knocked down in these cell lines with small interfering RNAs. Results P anaerobius was significantly enriched in stool samples from patients with CRC and in biopsies from patients with colorectal adenoma or CRC compared with controls. Mice depleted of bacteria and exposed to azoxymethane and P anaerobius had a higher incidence of intestinal dysplasia (63%) compared with mice not given the bacteria (8.3%; P < .01). P anaerobius mainly colonized the colon compared with the rest of the intestine. Colon cells exposed to P anaerobius had significantly higher levels of proliferation than control cells. We found genes that regulate cholesterol biosynthesis, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, and AMP-activated protein kinase signaling to be significantly up-regulated in cells exposed to P anaerobius. Total cholesterol levels were significantly increased in colon cell lines exposed to P anaerobius via activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2. P anaerobius interacted with TLR2 and TLR4 to increase intracellular levels of reactive oxidative species, which promoted cholesterol synthesis and cell proliferation. Depletion of reactive oxidative species by knockdown of TLR2 or TLR4, or incubation of cells with an antioxidant, prevented P anaerobius from inducing cholesterol biosynthesis and proliferation. Conclusions Levels of P anaerobius are increased in human colon tumor tissues and adenomas compared with non-tumor tissues; this bacteria increases colon dysplasia in a mouse model of CRC. P anaerobius interacts with TLR2 and TLR4 on colon cells to increase levels of reactive oxidative species, which promotes cholesterol synthesis and cell proliferation.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0016508517300495

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