3 years ago

Susceptibility and immunity to helminth parasites

Parasitic helminth infection remains a global health problem, whilst the ability of worms to manipulate and dampen the host immune system is attracting interest in the fields of allergy and autoimmunity. Much progress has been made in the last two years in determining the cells and cytokines involved in induction of Type 2 immunity, which is generally protective against helminth infection. Innate cells respond to ‘alarmin’ cytokines (IL-25, IL-33, TSLP) by producing IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and this sets the stage for a more potent subsequent adaptive Th2 response. CD4+ Th2 cells then drive a suite of type 2 anti-parasite mechanisms, including class-switched antibodies, activated leukocytes and innate defence molecules; the concerted effects of these multiple pathways disable, degrade and dislodge parasites, leading to their destruction or expulsion.

Highlights

► New studies identify innate lymphoid cells initiating immunity to helminths. ► The role of epithelial cells in both detection and expulsion of parasites. ► The concerted mechanisms that protect us from infection. ► The role of regulatory T cells in modulating protection. ► New immunoregulatory populations including macrophages, DCs and B cells.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0952791512000969

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