5 years ago

Remote Perturbations in Tertiary Contacts Trigger Ligation of Lysine to the Heme Iron in Cytochrome c

Remote Perturbations in Tertiary Contacts Trigger Ligation of Lysine to the Heme Iron in Cytochrome c
Dong-Woo Shin, Ekaterina V. Pletneva, Jie Gu
Perturbations in protein structure define the mechanism of allosteric regulation and biological information transfer. In cytochrome c (cyt c), ligation of Met80 to the heme iron is critical for the protein’s electron-transfer (ET) function in oxidative phosphorylation and for suppressing its peroxidase activity in apoptosis. The hard base Lys is a better match for the hard ferric iron than the soft base Met is, suggesting the key role of the protein scaffold in favoring Met ligation. To probe the role of the protein structure in the maintenance of Met ligation, mutations T49V and Y67R/M80A were designed to disrupt hydrogen bonding and packing of the heme coordination loop, respectively. Electronic absorption, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra reveal that ferric forms of both variants are Lys-ligated at neutral pH. A minor change in the tertiary contacts in T49V, away from the heme coordination loop, appears to be sufficient to execute a change in ligation, suggesting a cross-talk between the different regions of the protein structure and a possibility of built-in conformational switches in cyt c. Analyses of thermodynamic stability, kinetics of Lys binding and dissociation, and the pH-dependent changes in ligation provide a detailed characterization of the Lys coordination in these variants and relate these properties to the extent of structural perturbations. The findings emphasize the importance of the hydrogen-bonding network in controlling ligation of the native Met80 to the heme iron.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.6b01187

DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.6b01187

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