5 years ago

Room-Temperature Ring-Opening of Quinoline, Isoquinoline, and Pyridine with Low-Valent Titanium

Room-Temperature Ring-Opening of Quinoline, Isoquinoline, and Pyridine with Low-Valent Titanium
Seung-yeol Baek, Daniel J. Mindiola, Takashi Kurogi, Chun-Hsing Chen, Dahye Kang, Mu-Hyun Baik, Patrick J. Carroll, Seongyeon Kwon, Maren Pink, Douglas P. Solowey, Masahiro Kamitani
The complex (PNP)Ti═CHtBu(CH2tBu) (PNP = N[2-PiPr2-4-methylphenyl]2) dehydrogenates cyclohexane to cyclohexene by forming a transient low-valent titanium-alkyl species, [(PNP)Ti(CH2tBu)], which reacts with 2 equiv of quinoline (Q) at room temperature to form H3CtBu and a Ti(IV) species where the less hindered C2═N1 bond of Q is ruptured and coupled to another equivalent of Q. The product isolated from this reaction is an imide with a tethered cycloamide group, (PNP)Ti═N[C18H13N] (1). Under photolytic conditions, intramolecular C—H bond activation across the imide moiety in 1 occurs to form 2, and thermolysis reverses this process. The reaction of 2 equiv of isoquinoline (Iq) with intermediate [(PNP)Ti(CH2tBu)] results in regioselective cleavage of the C1═N2 and C1—H bonds, which eventually couple to form complex 3, a constitutional isomer of 1. Akin to 1, the transient [(PNP)Ti(CH2tBu)] complex can ring-open and couple two pyridine molecules, to produce a close analogue of 1, complex (PNP)Ti═N[C10H9N] (4). Multinuclear and multidimensional NMR spectra confirm structures for complexes 14, whereas solid-state structural analysis reveals the structures of 2, 3, and 4. DFT calculations suggest an unprecedented mechanism for ring-opening of Q where the reactive intermediate in the low-spin manifold crosses over to the high-spin surface to access a low-energy transition state but returns to the low-spin surface immediately. This double spin-crossover constitutes a rare example of a two-state reactivity, which is key for enabling the reaction at room temperature. The regioselective behavior of Iq ring-opening is found to be due to electronic effects, where the aromatic resonance of the bicycle is maintained during the key C—C coupling event.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b07433

DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b07433

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.