Neuropsychological functioning, age, and medication adherence in bipolar disorder
by Nadia Corréard, Julia-Lou Consoloni, Aurélie Raust, Bruno Etain, Romain Guillot, Sophie Job, Joséphine Loftus, Isabelle Médecin, Thierry Bougerol, Mircea Polosan, Benjamin Fredembach, Sébastien Gard, Katia M’Bailara, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Paul Roux, Anne-Sophie Homassel, Mathilde Carminati, Lucile Matos, Emilie Olié, Frank Bellivier, Philippe Courtet, Chantal Henry, Marion Leboyer, Jean-Michel Azorin, Raoul Belzeaux, FACE-BD collaboratorsObjectives
Poor adherence to medication is frequent in bipolar disorder (BD) and has been associated with several factors. To date, the relationship between low adherence and neuropsychological functioning in BD is still unclear. As age and neuropsychological functioning might have opposing influences on adherence, our aim was to investigate this link with a particular focus on the effect of age.Methods
In a cross-sectional study, we included 353 patients divided into two age-groups (16–46; 47–71) from a French cohort diagnosed with BD (type I, II, NOS) and strictly euthymic. All patients had a standardized clinical and neuropsychological assessment and were categorized as high (n = 186) or low (n = 167) adherent based on their score from the Medication Adherence Rating Scale. Clinical information was collected based on a standardized interview and clinical validated scales. Neuropsychological performances were evaluated with an established standardized neuropsychological battery for bipolar disorder patients. After univariate analysis, neuropsychological and clinical predictors of low adherence were included in two age-specific stepwise multiple logistic regressions.Results
A smaller number of hospitalizations (OR = 0.846, p = 0.012), a shorter illness duration (OR = 0.937, p = 0.003) and higher adverse effects (OR = 1.082, p<0.001) were associated with a greater risk of low adherence in the younger patients. In the older patients, low adherence was also predicted by a smaller number of hospitalizations (OR = 0.727, p = 0.008) and higher adverse effects (OR = 1.124, p = 0.005). Interestingly poor inhibition performance was also a significant predictor of low adherence in older patients (OR = 0.924, p = 0.030).Conclusions
We found an age-specific relationship between cognitive functioning and adherence in patients with BD. Poor inhibition performances predicted low adherence in older patients only. Our results highlight the need to provide age-adapted therapeutic interventions to improve adherence in patients with BD.
Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article
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