3 years ago

Diphtheria toxoid and N-trimethyl chitosan layer-by-layer coated pH-sensitive microneedles induce potent immune responses upon dermal vaccination in mice

Diphtheria toxoid and N-trimethyl chitosan layer-by-layer coated pH-sensitive microneedles induce potent immune responses upon dermal vaccination in mice
Dermal immunization using antigen-coated microneedle arrays is a promising vaccination strategy. However, reduction of microneedle sharpness and the available surface area for antigen coating is a limiting factor. To overcome these obstacles, a layer-by-layer coating approach can be applied onto pH-sensitive microneedles. Following this approach, pH-sensitive microneedle arrays (positively charged at coating pH5.8 and nearly uncharged at pH7.4) were alternatingly coated with negatively charged diphtheria toxoid (DT) and N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC), a cationic adjuvant. First, the optimal DT dose for intradermal immunization was determined in a dose-response study, which revealed that low-dose intradermal immunization was more efficient than subcutaneous immunization and that the EC50 dose of DT upon intradermal immunization is 3-fold lower, as compared to subcutaneous immunization. In a subsequent immunization study, microneedle arrays coated with an increasing number (2, 5, and 10) of DT/TMC bilayers resulted in step-wise increasing DT-specific immune responses. Dermal immunization with microneedle arrays coated with 10 bilayers of DT/TMC (corresponding with ±0.6μg DT delivered intradermally) resulted in similar DT-specific immune responses as subcutaneous immunization with 5μg of DT adjuvanted with aluminum phosphate (8-fold dose reduction). Summarizing, the layer-by-layer coating approach onto pH-sensitive microneedles is a versatile method to precisely control the amount of coated and dermally-delivered antigen that is highly suitable for dermal immunization.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0168365917307265

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