3 years ago

Vasopressor meets vasodepressor: The AT1–B2 receptor heterodimer

Vasopressor meets vasodepressor: The AT1–B2 receptor heterodimer
The AT1 receptor for the vasopressor angiotensin II is one of the most important drug targets for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sensitization of the AT1 receptor system is a common feature contributing to the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular disorders but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. More than a decade ago, evidence was provided for control of AT1R activation by heterodimerization with the B2 receptor for the vasodepressor peptide, bradykinin, a physiological counterpart of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. AT1–B2 receptor heterodimerization was shown to enhance AT1R-stimulated signaling under pathophysiological conditions such as experimental and human pregnancy hypertension. Notably, AT1R signal sensitization of patients with preeclampsia hypertension was attributed to AT1R–B2R heterodimerization. Vice versa, transgenic mice lacking the AT1–B2 receptor heterodimer due to targeted deletion of the B2R gene showed a significantly reduced AT1R-stimulated vasopressor response compared to transgenic mice with abundant AT1R–B2R heterodimerization. Biophysical methods such as BRET and FRET confirmed those data by demonstrating efficient AT1–B2 receptor heterodimerization in transfected cells and transgenic mice. Recently, a study on AT1R-specific biased agonism directed the focus to the AT1–B2 receptor heterodimer again. The β-arrestin-biased [Sar1,Ile4,Ile8]-angiotensin II promoted not only the recruitment of β-arrestin to the AT1R but also stimulated the down-regulation of the AT1R-associated B2 receptor by co-internalization. Thereby specific targeting of the AT1R–B2R heterodimer became feasible and could open the way to a new class of drugs, which specifically interfere with pathological angiotensin II-AT1 receptor system activation.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0006295214000434

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