5 years ago

Atheroprotective effects of Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J. F. Macbr. in New Zealand rabbits fed with cholesterol-rich diet

Atheroprotective effects of Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J. F. Macbr. in New Zealand rabbits fed with cholesterol-rich diet
Although Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J. F. Macbr. is used in Brazilian folk medicine in the treatment of atherosclerosis and circulatory disorders, no study evaluating these effects has been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible hypolipemiant and antiatherogenic activity of the ethanol soluble fraction obtained from C. carthagenensis (ES-CC) in an experimental atherosclerosis model using New Zealand (NZ) rabbits undergoing cholesterol-rich diet (CRD). Material and methods Dyslipidemia and atherogenesis were induced by administration of standard commercial diet increased of 1% cholesterol (CRD) for 8 weeks. ES-CC was orally administered at doses of 10, 30 and 100mg/kg, once daily for four weeks, starting from the 4th week of CRD diet. Body weight measurements were weekly carried out from the beginning of experiments for 8 weeks. Serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and their fractions (LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C) were measured at the beginning of experiments and at weeks four and eight. After euthanasia of rabbits, aorta segments (aortic arc, thoracic, abdominal and iliac segments) were macroscopically and microscopically evaluated and the intima and media layers of the arteries were measured. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of ES-CC and its influence on the functioning of hepatic antioxidant enzymes were also determined. Results CRD induced dyslipidemia and major structural changes in the aortic wall. In addition, an increase in lipid peroxidation and a reduction of hepatic glutathione and serum nitrite levels were observed. Treatment with ES-CC was able to prevent the increase in TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C levels and triglycerides and promoted an increase in HDL-C levels in NZ rabbits. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in oxidative stress and modulation of the catalase and superoxide dismutase function. Moreover, the intima and media layers of the arterial segments were significantly reduced by ES-CC treatment. Conclusions This study demonstrated that ES-CC reduces serum lipids and hepatic oxidative stress when orally administered to NZ rabbits. In addition, it was able to prevent the development of CRD-induced atherosclerosis.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0378874116302197

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