5 years ago

Cardiometabolic risk factors in young people at ultra-high risk for psychosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

The physical health of people with schizophrenia is poor, and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Unhealthy lifestyles and side-effects of antipsychotic medication contribute to cardiometabolic dysfunction. Yet it is unclear when this unhealthy profile starts. We aimed to see if people at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) have increased rates of cardiometabolic risk factors. Method An electronic search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted on 1st May 2015 using terms associated with the ultra-high risk state and health. Eligible studies were peer-reviewed English language research articles with populations that met at-risk diagnostic criteria and reported cardiometabolic risk factors. A meta-analysis was conducted on smoking data, the cardiometabolic risk factor that yielded the most studies. Results Forty-seven eligible studies were identified. UHR samples had low levels of physical activity, and high rates of smoking and alcohol abuse compared with controls. No differences were found for body mass index. An overall pooled rate of smoking for UHR participants was 33% (95% CI=0.24–0.42) and significantly more UHR individuals smoked compared with controls with a pooled odds ratio of 2.3 (P<0.05; 95% CI=1.48–3.48). Conclusions UHR samples display cardiometabolic risk factors which are largely modifiable. The UHR phase is an important opportunity for early intervention services to improve physical health.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0920996416300123

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