5 years ago

Heterogeneous resistance mechanisms in an EGFR exon 19-mutated non-small cell lung cancer patient treated with erlotinib: persistent FGFR3-mutation, localized transformation to EGFR-mutated SCLC, and acquired T790M EGFR-mutation.

Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) obtain substantial clinical benefit from EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but will ultimately develop TKI-resistance resulting in median progression-free survival of 9-15 months during first-line TKI-therapy. However, type and timing of TKI-resistance cannot be predicted and several mechanisms may simultaneously/subsequently occur during TKI-treatment. In this respect, we present a 49 year-old Caucasian male ex-smoker with metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma (ADC) that concomitantly harbored an EGFR exon 19-mutation (p.E746_A750delELREA) and a previously unreported 2bp frame-shift microdeletion in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3; p.D785fs*31) gene. Interestingly, FGFR3-mutations have previously been described in other cancer types of Caucasian patients and may represent an alternative pathway to EGFR-signaling. The patient received first-line erlotinib but after only 7 weeks showed metastatic pleural effusion, in which transformation to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) that retained the EGFR- and FGFR3-mutations was identified. Consequently, standard carboplatin-etoposide regimen for SCLC combined with erlotinib continuation was implemented obtaining significant objective response. However, after completing 6 cycles of this combination, new pulmonary and hepatic metastases appeared and showed persistence of the original EGFR- and FGFR3-mutated ADC phenotype together with acquisition of the erlotinib-resistant T790M EGFR-mutation. The patient rapidly deteriorated and deceased. Thus, this advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC displayed very rapid onset and heterogeneous genetic and phenotypic mechanisms of TKI-resistance occurring at different times and locations of metastatic disease: concomitant FGFR3-mutation before and during TKI-treatment as potential intrinsic mechanism for the rapid progression; transformation to SCLC at first progression during TKI-therapy; acquired T790M EGFR-mutation at second progression. Our case also underlines that, when achievable, rebiopsies of progressive sites during TKI-treatment are important for identifying heterogeneous histopathological and molecular resistance mechanisms and better defining possible treatment modifications.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0169500217304993

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.