5 years ago

Dual occurrence of ALK G1202R solvent front mutation and small cell lung cancer transformation as resistance mechanisms to second generation ALK inhibitors without prior exposure to crizotinib. Pitfall of solely relying on liquid re-biopsy?

Development of the acquired ALK G1202R solvent front mutation and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) transformation have both been independently reported as resistance mechanisms to ALK inhibitors in ALK-rearranged (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients but have not been reported in the same patient. Here we report an ALK+ NSCLC patient who had disease progression after ceritinib and then alectinib where an ALK G1202R mutation was detected on circulating tumor (ct) DNA prior to enrollment onto a trial of another next generation ALK inhibitor, lorlatinib. The patient’s central nervous system (CNS) metastases responded to lorlatinib together with clearance of ALK G1202R mutation by repeat ctDNA assay. However, the patient developed a new large pericardial effusion. Resected pericardium from the pericardial window revealed SCLC transformation with positive immunostaining for synaptophysin, chromogranin, and ALK (D5F3 antibody). Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of the tumor infiltrating pericardium revealed the retainment of an ALK rearrangement with emergence of an inactivating Rb1 mutation (C706Y) and loss of exons 1–11 in p53 that was not detected in the original tumor tissue at diagnosis. The patient was subsequently treated with carboplatin/etoposide and alectinib, but had rapid clinical deterioration and died. The patient never received crizotinib. This case illustrates that multiple/compound resistance mechanisms to ALK inhibitors can occur and provide supporting information that loss of p53 and Rb1 are important in SCLC transformation. If clinically feasible, tissue-based re-biopsy allowing histological examination and CGP remains the gold standard to assess resistance mechanism(s) and to direct subsequent rational clinical care.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0169500217300375

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.