Cooperative inhibition of RIP1-mediated NF-κB signaling by cytomegalovirus-encoded deubiquitinase and inactive homolog of cellular ribonucleotide reductase large subunit
by Ki Mun Kwon, Se Eun Oh, Young Eui Kim, Tae-Hee Han, Jin-Hyun AhnSeveral viruses have been found to encode a deubiquitinating protease (DUB). These viral DUBs are proposed to play a role in regulating innate immune or inflammatory signaling. In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), the largest tegument protein encoded by UL48 contains DUB activity, but its cellular targets are not known. Here, we show that UL48 and UL45, an HCMV-encoded inactive homolog of cellular ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) large subunit (R1), target receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) to inhibit NF-κB signaling. Transfection assays showed that UL48 and UL45, which binds to UL48, interact with RIP1 and that UL48 DUB activity and UL45 cooperatively suppress RIP1-mediated NF-κB activation. The growth of UL45-null mutant virus was slightly impaired with showing reduced accumulation of viral late proteins. Analysis of a recombinant virus expressing HA-UL45 showed that UL45 interacts with both UL48 and RIP1 during virus infection. Infection with the mutant viruses also revealed that UL48 DUB activity and UL45 inhibit TNFα-induced NF-κB activation at late times of infection. UL48 cleaved both K48- and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains of RIP1. Although UL45 alone did not affect RIP1 ubiquitination, it could enhance the UL48 activity to cleave RIP1 polyubiquitin chains. Consistently, UL45-null virus infection showed higher ubiquitination level of endogenous RIP1 than HA-UL45 virus infection at late times. Moreover, UL45 promoted the UL48-RIP1 interaction and re-localization of RIP1 to the UL48-containing virion assembly complex. The mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-encoded DUB, M48, interacted with mouse RIP1 and M45, an MCMV homolog of UL45. Collectively, our data demonstrate that cytomegalovirus-encoded DUB and inactive R1 homolog target RIP1 and cooperatively inhibit RIP1-mediated NF-κB signaling at the late stages of HCMV infection.
Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article
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