4 years ago

A Novel Hypoxia-Inducible Factor−Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor (GSK1278863) for Anemia in CKD: A 28-Day, Phase 2A Randomized Trial

Anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often requires treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO). Hypoxia-inducible factor−prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (PHIs) stimulate endogenous EPO synthesis and induce effective erythropoiesis by non-EPO effects. GSK1278863 is an orally administered small-molecule PHI. Study Design Multicenter, single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Setting & Participants Anemic non–dialysis-dependent patients with CKD stages 3-5 (CKD-3/4/5 group; n=70) and anemic hemodialysis patients with CKD stage 5D (CKD-5D group; n=37). Interventions Patients with CKD-3/4/5 received placebo or GSK1278863 (10, 25, 50, or 100mg), and patients with CKD-5D received placebo or GSK1278863 (10 or 25mg) once daily for 28 days. Outcomes & Measurements Primary pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (increase and response rates in achieving the target hemoglobin [Hb] concentration, plasma EPO concentrations, reticulocyte count, and others]) and safety and tolerability end points were obtained. Results Both CKD-3/4/5 and CKD-5D populations showed a dose-dependent increase in EPO concentrations and consequent increases in reticulocytes and Hb levels. Percentages of GSK1278863 participants with an Hb level increase > 1.0g/dL (CKD-3/4/5) and >0.5g/dL (CKD-5D) were 63% to 91% and 71% to 89%, respectively. Per-protocol–defined criteria, high rate of increase in Hb level, or high absolute Hb value was the main cause for withdrawal (CKD-3/4/5, 30%; CKD-5D, 22%). A dose-dependent decrease in hepcidin levels and increase in total and unsaturated iron binding were observed in all GSK1278863-treated patients. Limitations Sparse pharmacokinetic sampling may have limited covariate characterization. EPO concentrations at the last pharmacodynamic sample (5-6 hours) postdose may not represent peak concentrations, which occurred 8 to 10 hours postdose in previous studies. Patients were not stratified by diabetes status, potentially confounding vascular endothelial growth factor and glucose analyses. Conclusions GSK1278863 induced an effective EPO response and stimulated non-EPO mechanisms for erythropoiesis in anemic non–dialysis-dependent and dialysis-dependent patients with CKD.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S027263861501495X

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