5 years ago

Caveolin-1 Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells against Acute Ocular Hypertension Injury via Modulating Microglial Phenotypes and Distribution and Activating AKT pathway

Ran Liu, Xuri Li, Wenjie Hu, Qishan Chen, Hongping Xu, Liwei Zhang, Jiazhou Xu, Wei Chen, Lan Zhou, Ruting Zhang, Zhongshu Tang, Dongyue Lin
Glaucoma, a group of eye diseases, causes gradual loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and ultimately results in irreversible blindness. Studies of the underlying mechanisms of glaucoma and clinical trial are far from satisfactory. Results from a genome-wide association study have suggested that the CAV1/CAV2 locus is associated with glaucoma, but this association and its potential underlying mechanisms need to be confirmed and further explored. Here, we studied the function of caveolin-1 (Cav1) in an acute ocular hypertension glaucoma model. Cav1 deficiency caused an aggregated lesion in the retina. In addition, treatment with cavtratin, a membrane permeable Cav1 scaffolding domain peptide, enhanced RGC survival. After cavtratin treatment, microglial numbers decreased significantly, and the majority of them migrated from the inner retinal layer to the outer retinal layers. Furthermore, cavtratin promoted a change in the microglia phenotype from the neurotoxic pro-inflammatory M1 to the neuroprotective anti-inflammatory M2. In a molecular mechanism experiment, we found that cavtratin activated the phosphorylation of both AKT and PTEN in cultured N9 cells. Our data highlights the neuroprotective effect of Cav1 on acute ocular hypertension and suggests that Cav1 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of glaucoma. We further propose that cavtratin is a therapeutic candidate for glaucoma clinical trials.

Publisher URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-10719-x

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-10719-x

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