Chronic administration of myristic acid improves hyperglycaemia in the Nagoya–Shibata–Yasuda mouse model of congenital type 2 diabetes
Previously, we demonstrated that myristic acid (14:0) increases levels of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) δ, a key enzyme involved in type 2 diabetes exacerbation, and enhances glucose uptake in C2C12 myotube cells. Moreover, results from a population-based cohort study suggest that consumption of high-fat dairy products, which contain high amounts of myristic acid, is associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Taken together, we hypothesised that intake of myristic acid reduces type 2 diabetes risk in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine the glucose-lowering effect of myristic acid in Nagoya–Shibata–Yasuda (NSY) mice, a spontaneous model for studying obesity-related type 2 diabetes.
Male NSY mice were orally administered vehicle (n = 9), 300 mg/kg of myristic acid (n = 14) or 300 mg/kg of palmitic acid (16:0) (n = 9) every other day from 4 weeks of age. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed at weeks 18, 24 and 30, and weeks 20 and 26, respectively. DGKδ levels were measured in skeletal muscle from 32–36-week-old NSY mice via western blot.
Chronic oral administration of myristic acid ameliorated glucose tolerance (24–28% decrease in blood glucose levels during glucose tolerance tests) and reduced insulin-responsive blood glucose levels (~20% decrease) in male NSY mice compared with vehicle and palmitic acid groups at 24–30 weeks of age (the age at which the severity of type 2 diabetes is exacerbated in NSY mice). Myristic acid also attenuated the increase in body weight seen in NSY mice. Furthermore, the fatty acid increased DGKδ levels (~1.6-fold) in skeletal muscle of NSY mice.
These results suggest that the chronic oral administration of myristic acid improves hyperglycaemia by decreasing insulin-responsive glucose levels and reducing body weight, and that the fatty acid accounts for the diabetes protective properties of high-fat dairy products. Myristic acid is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related diseases.
Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-017-4366-4
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