The landscape of genetic diseases in Saudi Arabia based on the first 1000 diagnostic panels and exomes
In this study, we report the experience of the only reference clinical next-generation sequencing lab in Saudi Arabia with the first 1000 families who span a wide-range of suspected Mendelian phenotypes. A total of 1019 tests were performed in the period of March 2016–December 2016 comprising 972 solo (index only), 14 duo (parents or affected siblings only), and 33 trio (index and parents). Multigene panels accounted for 672 tests, while whole exome sequencing (WES) represented the remaining 347 tests. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants that explain the clinical indications were identified in 34% (27% in panels and 43% in exomes), spanning 279 genes and including 165 novel variants. While recessive mutations dominated the landscape of solved cases (71% of mutations, and 97% of which are homozygous), a substantial minority (27%) were solved on the basis of dominant mutations. The highly consanguineous nature of the study population also facilitated homozygosity for many private mutations (only 32.5% of the recessive mutations are founder), as well as the first instances of recessive inheritance of previously assumed strictly dominant disorders (involving ITPR1, VAMP1, MCTP2, and TBP). Surprisingly, however, dual molecular diagnosis was only observed in 1.5% of cases. Finally, we have encountered candidate variants in 75 genes (ABHD6, ACY3, ADGRB2, ADGRG7, AGTPBP1, AHNAK2, AKAP6, ASB3, ATXN1L, C17orf62, CABP1, CCDC186, CCP110, CLSTN2, CNTN3, CNTN5, CTNNA2, CWC22, DMAP1, DMKN, DMXL1, DSCAM, DVL2, ECI1, EP400, EPB41L5, FBXL22, GAP43, GEMIN7, GIT1, GRIK4, GRSF1, GTRP1, HID1, IFNL1, KCNC4, LRRC52, MAP7D3, MCTP2, MED26, MPP7, MRPS35, MTDH, MTMR9, NECAP2, NPAT, NRAP, PAX7, PCNX, PLCH2, PLEKHF1, PTPN12, QKI, RILPL2, RIMKLA, RIMS2, RNF213, ROBO1, SEC16A, SIAH1, SIRT2, SLAIN2, SLC22A20, SMDT1, SRRT, SSTR1, ST20, SYT9, TSPAN6, UBR4, VAMP4, VPS36, WDR59, WDYHV1, and WHSC1) not previously linked to human phenotypes and these are presented to accelerate post-publication matchmaking. Two of these genes were independently mutated in more than one family with similar phenotypes, which substantiates their link to human disease (AKAP6 in intellectual disability and UBR4 in early dementia). If the novel candidate disease genes in this cohort are independently confirmed, the yield of WES will have increased to 83%, which suggests that most “negative” clinical exome tests are unsolved due to interpretation rather than technical limitations.
Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00439-017-1821-8
Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.
Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.