Ketamine-induced behavioural and brain oxidative changes in mice: an assessment of possible beneficial effects of zinc as mono- or adjunct therapy
We studied the influence of zinc, haloperidol or olanzapine on neurobehaviour (open-field, radial arm maze and elevated plus maze) and brain antioxidant status in vehicle- or ketamine-treated mice, with the aim of ascertaining the potentials of zinc in counteracting ketamine’s effects.
Experiment 1 assessed the effects of zinc in healthy animals and the relative degrees of modulation of ketamine’s effects by zinc, haloperidol or olanzapine, respectively. Experiment 2 assessed the modulation of ketamine’s effects following co-administration of zinc with haloperidol or olanzapine.
Male mice weighing 18–20 g each were used. Animals were pretreated with ketamine (except vehicle, zinc, haloperidol and olanzapine controls) for 10 days before commencement of 14-day treatment (day 11–24) with vehicle, zinc, haloperidol or olanzapine (alone or in combination). Ketamine injection also continued alongside zinc and/or standard drugs in the ketamine-treated groups. Zinc, haloperidol and olanzapine were administered by gavage. Treatments were given daily and behaviours assessed on days 11 and 24. On day 24, animals were sacrificed and whole brain homogenates used for estimation of glutathione, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels.
Ketamine increased open-field behaviours, nitric oxide and MDA levels, while it decreased working memory, social interaction and glutathione. Administration of zinc alone or in combination with haloperidol or olanzapine was associated with variable degrees of reversal of these effects.
Zinc may have the potential of a possible therapeutic agent and/or adjunct in the reversal of schizophrenia-like changes in behaviour and brain oxidative status.
Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-017-4666-x
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