5 years ago

Investigations on the dose–response relationship of combined exposure to low doses of three anti-androgens in Wistar rats

Xiaoqi Jiang, Volker Strauss, Sibylle Gröters, Stephanie Melching-Kollmuss, Karma C. Fussell, Roland Buesen, Steffen Schneider, Bennard van Ravenzwaay


The current investigation examines whether combined exposure to three anti-androgens (flutamide, prochloraz, vinclozolin) result in interference with endocrine homeostasis when applied at very low dose levels, and whether the results of combined exposure are more pronounced than to the individual compounds. A pre–post-natal in vivo study design was chosen with more parameters than regulatory testing protocols require (additional endpoints addressing hormone levels, morphology and histopathological examinations). Dose levels were chosen to represent the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), and the acceptable daily intake for each individual substance. Anti-androgenic changes were observable at the effect level (LOAEL) but not at lower exposures. Nipple/areola counts appeared to be a sensitive measure of effect, in addition to male sex organ weights at sexual maturation, and finally gross findings. The results indicate the absence of evidence for effects at low or very low dose levels. No (adverse) effects were seen at the NOAEL dose. A non-monotonic dose–response relationship was not evident. Combined exposure at LOAEL level resulted in enhanced responses for anogenital index, number of areolas/nipples, delayed preputial separation and reduced ventral prostate weight in comparison to the individual compounds.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00204-017-2053-3

DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2053-3

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