3 years ago

Early response of glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent antioxidant defense systems to Tl(I)- and Tl(III)-mediated oxidative stress in adherent pheochromocytoma (PC12adh) cells

Sandra V. Verstraeten, Lis C. Puga Molina, Damiana M. Salvatierra Fréchou

Abstract

Thallium (Tl) is a toxic heavy metal that causes oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we evaluated the production of oxygen (ROS)- and nitrogen (RNS)-reactive species in adherent PC12 (PC12adh) cells exposed for 0.5–6 h to Tl(I) or Tl(III) (10–100 µM). In this system, Tl(I) induced mostly H2O2 generation while Tl(III) induced H2O2 and ONOO·− generation. Both cations enhanced iNOS expression and activity, and decreased CuZnSOD expression but without affecting its activity. Tl(I) increased MnSOD expression and activity but Tl(III) decreased them. NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity remained unaffected throughout the period assessed. Oxidant levels returned to baseline values after 6 h of incubation, suggesting a response of the antioxidant defense system to the oxidative insult imposed by the cations. Tl also affected the glutathione-dependent system: while Tl(III) increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) expression and activity, Tl(I) and Tl(III) decreased glutathione reductase (GR) expression. However, GR activity was mildly enhanced by Tl(III). Finally, thioredoxin-dependent system was evaluated. Only Tl(I) increased 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prx) expression, although both cations increased their activity. Tl(I) increased cytosolic thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) and decreased mitochondrial (TrxR2) expression. Tl(III) had a biphasic effect on TrxR1 expression and slightly increased TrxR2 expression. Despite of this, both cations increased total TrxR activity. Obtained results suggest that in Tl(I)-exposed PC12adh cells, there is an early response to oxidative stress mainly by GSH-dependent system while in Tl(III)-treated cells both GSH- and Trx-dependent systems are involved.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00204-017-2056-0

DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2056-0

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.