3 years ago

Cytotoxicity of novel fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances to human liver cell line and their binding capacity to human liver fatty acid binding protein

Jiayin Dai, Jinghua Wang, Nan Sheng, Yong Guo, Jianshe Wang, Ruina Cui

Abstract

Although shorter chain homologues and other types of fluorinated chemicals are currently used as alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), their safety information remains unclear and urgently needed. Here, the cytotoxicity of several fluorinated alternatives (i.e., 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (6:2 FTCA), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA), 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA), and hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO) homologues) to human liver HL-7702 cell line were measured and compared with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Their binding mode and affinity to human liver fatty acid binding protein (hL-FABP) were also determined. Compared with PFOA and PFOS, 6:2 Cl-PFESA, HFPO trimer acid (HFPO-TA), HFPO tetramer acid (HFPO-TeA), and 6:2 FTSA showed greater toxic effects on cell viabilities. At low exposure doses, these alternatives induced cell proliferation with similar mechanism which was different from that of PFOA and PFOS. Furthermore, binding affinity to hL-FABP decreased in the order of 6:2 FTCA < 6:2 FTSA < HFPO dimer acid (HFPO-DA) < PFOA < PFOS/6:2 Cl-PFESA/HFPO-TA. Due to their distinctive structure, 6:2 Cl-PFESA and HFPO homologues were bound to the hL-FABP inner pocket with unique binding modes and higher binding energy compared with PFOA and PFOS. This research enhances our understanding of the toxicity of PFAS alternatives during usage and provides useful evidence for the development of new alternatives.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00204-017-2055-1

DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2055-1

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