3 years ago

Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage during a PCV trial

Anna Roca, Effua Usuf, Lindsay Kendall, Brian Greenwood, Philip C. Hill, Martin Antonio, Uzochukwu Egere, Sarah Mulwa, Abdoulie Bojang

Abstract

Background

We conducted an ancillary study among individuals who had participated in a cluster-randomized PCV-7 trial in rural Gambia (some clusters were wholly-vaccinated while in others only young children had been vaccinated), to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage.

Methods

Two hundred thirty-two children aged 5–10 years were recruited and followed from 4 to 20 months after vaccination started. We collected 1264 nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS). S. aureus was isolated following conventional microbiological methods. Risk factors for carriage were assessed by logistic regression.

Results

Prevalence of S. aureus carriage was 25.9%. In the univariable analysis, prevalence of S. aureus carriage was higher among children living in villages wholly-vaccinated with PCV-7 [OR = 1.57 95%CI (1.14 to 2.15)] and children with least 1 year of education [OR = 1.44 95%CI (1.07 to 1.92)]. S. aureus carriage was also higher during the rainy season [OR = 1.59 95%CI (1.20 to 2.11)]. Carriage of S. pneumoniae did not have any effect on S. aureus carriage for any pneumococcal, vaccine-type (VT) or non-vaccine-type (NVT) carriage. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher prevalence of S. aureus observed among children living in villages wholly-vaccinated with PCV-7 occurred only during the rainy season OR 2.72 95%CI (1.61–4.60) and not in the dry season OR 1.28 95%CI (0.78–2.09).

Conclusions

Prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of S. aureus among Gambian children increased during the rainy season among those children living in PCV-7 wholly vaccinated communities. However, carriage of S. aureus is not associated with carriage of S. pneumoniae.

Trial registration

ISRCTN51695599. Registered August 04th 2006.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12879-017-2685-1

DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2685-1

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