5 years ago

Antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of sodium hypochlorite against Staphylococcus aureus isolates derived from patients with atopic dermatitis

M. Mörgelin, A. Sonesson, M.J.A. Plas, S. Eriksson
Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by an increased susceptibility to skin infections. Staphylococcus aureus is reported to dominate in AD lesions and reports have revealed the presence of staphylococcal biofilms. These infections contribute to aggravation of the eczema. Sodium hypochlorite is known to reduce bacterial load of skin lesions, as well as disease severity, in patients with AD, but the effect on biofilms is unknown. Objectives To investigate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of sodium hypochlorite against S. aureus isolates derived from patients with AD. Methods Skin biopsies derived from patients with infected AD were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using radial diffusion assays, biofilm assays and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we assessed the effect of sodium hypochlorite on S. aureus isolates derived from lesional skin of patients with AD. Results SEM revealed clusters of coccoid bacteria embedded in fibrin and extracellular substances at the skin of a patient with infected AD. At concentrations of 0·01–0·08%, sodium hypochlorite showed antibacterial effects against planktonic cells. Eradication of S. aureus biofilms in vitro was observed in concentrations ranging from 0·01% to 0·16%. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed these results. Finally, when human AD skin was subjected to sodium hypochlorite in an ex vivo model, a dose of 0·04% reduced the bacteria derived from AD skin. Conclusions Sodium hypochlorite has antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects against clinical S. aureus isolates. Our findings suggest usage of a higher concentration than currently used in bleach baths of patients with skin-infected AD.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/bjd.15410

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