3 years ago

The diagnosis and management of male genital lichen sclerosus: a retrospective review of 301 patients

C.B. Bunker, A. Freeman, P.R. Doiron, G. Kravvas, A. Muneer, S. Minhas, C. Jameson, T.N. Shim
Introduction Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is an acquired, chronic, inflammatory skin disease that is associated with significant morbidity and squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (PSCC). However, some clinical, diagnostic and management controversies endure, including the relationship with penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). Objectives To clarify clinical presentations, diagnostic approaches, histological findings, response to treatment and the relationship with PeIN. Methods Retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of MGLSc who attended a specialist male genital dermatoses clinic. Results 301 patients were identified: 260 had isolated MGLSc and 41 both MGLSc and PeIN. Referrals were made from the local Urology and Andrology departments (128), primary care (89), GUM (54), other dermatology departments (28) and other specialties (2). In isolated MGLSc, 94.6% were diagnosed clinically with 93.5% accuracy (based on data from subsequent circumcisions). In combined MGLSc/PeIN, 85.4% were diagnosed following diagnostic biopsy and 14.6% retrospectively after circumcision. In isolated MGLSc, 50% were treated topically, and 50% required surgery. In MGLSc/PeIN, 78% required surgical interventions. In isolated MGLSc, 92.2% achieved resolution of symptoms, 3.5% were awaiting procedures, and 4.8% were receiving ongoing topical therapy. In MGLSc/PeIN, 90.2% achieved clearance, 2.4% were waiting surgery, and 7.3% were treated topically. Only 2.7% reported ongoing symptoms, all in patients treated surgically. None progressed to PSCC. Discussion MGLSc is generally a disease of the uncircumcised; the majority of cases of MGLSc are accurately diagnosed clinically; suspected PeIN or PSCC requires histological confirmation; circumcision histology can be non-specific; most men are either cured by topical treatment with ultrapotent corticosteroid (53.1%) or by circumcision (46.9%); surgical intervention is required in most cases of concomitant MGLSc and PeIN; the majority of patients with MGLSc alone or with MGLSc and PeIN remit with this approach; effective management appears to negate the risk of malignant transformation to PSCC.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/jdv.14488

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