3 years ago

Hypoglycaemia seriousness and weight gain as determinants of cardiovascular disease outcomes among sulfonylurea users

David D. Dore, Michael C. Doherty, Anthony P. Nunes, Jing Yang, Samuel S. Engel, Kristy Iglay, Larry Radican
Aims Certain treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus cause hypoglycaemia and weight gain, and thus might counteract the benefits of intensive glucose control. We quantify the association of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes with hypoglycaemia and weight gain among patients with type 2 diabetes treated with sulfonylureas. Materials and Methods This cohort study included patients from January 2009 through December 2014 who were selected from within a deidentified nationwide electronic health records repository, including multiple provider networks and electronic medical records systems. Hypoglycaemia measures from structured data fields and free text clinical notes were categorized as serious or non-serious. Covariate adjusted Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the association between frequency of hypoglycaemia (by severity), or magnitude of weight change, and incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF) and stroke. Results Among 143 635 eligible patients, we observed 5669 cases of AMI, 14 109 incident cases of CHF and 7017 cases of stroke. Overall incidence rates were 1.53, 4.26 and 1.92 per 100 person-years for AMI, CHF and stroke, respectively. The associations between overall hypoglycaemia and each of the CVD outcomes were positive, with stronger associations observed for serious hypoglycaemia and attenuated or null associations observed for non-serious hypoglycaemia. Weight change exhibited a U-shaped association with increased risks associated with both weight loss and weight gain relative to stable weight. Conclusions This study provides evidence of increased CVD risk associated with hypoglycaemia, especially with serious hypoglycaemia events. While associations were attenuated with non-serious hypoglycaemia, the results were suggestive of a potential increased risk.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/dom.13000

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