5 years ago

Lenalidomide as second-line therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: exploration of biomarkers for treatment efficacy

M.-J. Wang, B.-B. Chen, D.-L. Ou, C.-H. Hsu, C. Hsu, A.-L. Cheng, Y.-Y. Shao, Z.-Z. Lin
Background Lenalidomide has immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic effects and showed moderate anti-tumour efficacy in patients with. advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Aim To explore potential biomarkers of lenalidomide efficacy as second-line therapy for HCC. Methods Eligible patients were diagnosed with advanced HCC, documented progression on sorafenib, and Child-Pugh class A liver function. Patients received 25 mg/day lenalidomide orally on days 1-21 every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was 6 month progression-free survival rate. Early α-fetoprotein response was defined as a > 20% decline of α-fetoprotein levels from baseline within the first 4 weeks of treatment. Vascular response, evaluated using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, was defined as a > 40% decline in Ktrans after 2 weeks of treatment. The percentage of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were also analysed. Results Fifty-five patients were enrolled. The response rate was 13%, and the disease-control rate was 53%. The 6 month progression-free survival rate was 9.1%. The median progression-free and overall survival was 1.8 months and 8.9 months respectively. Early α-fetoprotein response was significantly associated with higher disease-control rate (76% vs 22%, P = .001) and longer progression-free survival (P = .020). Vascular response was not associated with any treatment outcomes. Patients with a high pre-treatment B cell percentage were more likely to have disease control (70% vs 36%, P = .010) and exhibited longer progression-free survival (P < .001) and overall survival (P = .042). Conclusions Lenalidomide exhibited moderate activity as second-line therapy for advanced HCC. Its immunomodulatory effects should be further explored (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01545804).

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/apt.14270

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