3 years ago

Changes in intestinal microbiota and their effects on allogeneic stem cell transplantation

Seah H Lim, Christopher M Terry, Rory M Shallis
The human intestinal microbiota is essential for microbial homeostasis, regulation of metabolism, and intestinal immune tolerance. Rapidly evolving understanding of the importance of the microbiota implicates changes in the composition and function of intestinal microbial communities in an assortment of systemic conditions. Complications following allogeneic stem cell transplant now join the ever-expanding list of pathologic states regulated by intestinal microbiota. Dysbiosis, or disruption of the normal ecology of this microbiome, has been directly implicated in the pathogenesis of entities such as Clostridium difficile infections, graft-versus-host disease, and most recently disease relapse, all of which are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant. In this review, we elucidate the key origins of microbiotic alterations and discuss how dysbiosis influences complications following allogeneic stem cell transplant. Our emerging understanding of the importance of a balanced and diverse intestinal microbiota is prompting investigation into the appropriate treatment of dysbiosis, reliable and early detection of such, and ultimately its prevention in patients to improve the outcome following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/ajh.24896

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