3 years ago

Contributions of the intestinal microbiome in lung immunity

Contributions of the intestinal microbiome in lung immunity
Jay K. Kolls, Jeremy P. McAleer
The intestine is a critical site of immune cell development that not only controls intestinal immunity but extra-intestinal immunity as well. Recent findings have highlighted important roles for gut microbiota in shaping lung inflammation. Here, we discuss interactions between the microbiota and immune system including T cells, protective effects of microbiota on lung infections, the role of diet in shaping the composition of gut microbiota and susceptibility to asthma, epidemiologic evidence implicating antibiotic use and microbiota in asthma and clinical trials investigating probiotics as potential treatments for atopy and asthma. The systemic effects of gut microbiota are partially attributed to their generating metabolites including short chain fatty acids, which can suppress lung inflammation through the activation of G protein-coupled receptors. Thus, studying the interactions between microbiota and immune cells can lead to the identification of therapeutic targets for chronic lower respiratory diseases. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota, environment and immune system contribute to the development of asthma and atopy. We discuss epidemiologic, clinical and mechanistic data on the role of microbes in regulating lung immunity. Dietary manipulation of microbiota is further discussed as potential adjunctive therapies for chronic inflammatory diseases.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/eji.201646721

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